Wednesday, November 28, 2012

Wednesday, November 28, 2012

Real-time new WORLD WIDE WEB (The grid)

The new ground zero in Internet warfare
The power grid is an obvious target for terrorists, criminals, but experts disagree about how to protect it.


WWW - When it comes to critical national infrastructure, the highly distributed and ultra-interconnected U.S. power grid is, hands down, the most vulnerable to cyber-attack. On this one point, many cyber-security experts seem to agree.

"Yet just how likely a terrorist target is the grid? And what's the best way to secure and protect the massive inventory of generators, power plants and transmission lines plus the cat's cradle of computer networks that make up the electric power system?

Talk to 10 experts, and you'll likely get 10 different answers.

The problem is that we have a hard time assessing risk,"
(e.g. The Grid ) says Jim Lewis, a senior fellow specializing in cyber-security at the Center for Strategic and International Studies. "We seem to settle on either indifference or a Bruce Willis movie." (e.g. The Grid )
Internet Warfare

    World crisis: Are we focusing on the wrong things?
    Navigating the fog of cyber war
    Software: "The eternal battlefield
    The grid: Likely target?
    Cyber-war's first casualty: Your privacy
    A short history of hacks, worms and cyber-terror"

(e.g. The Grid )
Up until about a many moons ago, things were a lot simpler. The industrial control systems that manage the generation and flow of power were pretty much protected from intrusion by their closed-loop architecture. These control systems existed and operated in isolation from everything else.

But increasingly, these systems have been linked to countless corporate networks for everything from real-time monitoring of electricity generation and transmission to remote meter reading and automated grid operations.

"We had an explosion in business network technology, and as that occurred, individuals in accounting, for example, wanted real-time information at their desktop computers so they could do projection planning," (e. g. says Michael Assante,) chief information security officer at North American Electric Reliability Corp. (NERC), an industry organization of U.S. electrical grid operators.

The smart grid relies heavily on public communication networks, including cellular networks and WiMax, to electronic monitor and control the grid for more efficient operation, he explains.
More vulnerability

But more connections mean more points of vulnerability, and that's what worries Sami Saydjari, president of Cyber Defense Agency, a  held security consulting firm headquartered in Wisconsin Rapids, Wis.

"The power grid is controlled by systems that are antiquated and highly vulnerable because they have very little security. They've been historically protected by disconnection," he says.

But the rush to improve convenience and efficiency by tying together administrative systems and billing systems over the Internet has created gateways to the power grid control systems, Saydjari notes.
The power grid is controlled by systems that are antiquated and highly vulnerable because they have very little security.
Sami Saydjari, president, Cyber Defense Agency

"The concern that many of us have is that an adversary can jump that gap directly or indirectly and exploit vulnerabilities," he says.

In particular, they could use these control systems to destroy physical things, like generators, or overload transformers and destroy them, Saydjari says. If that were to happen, it could take six months to replace transformers or generators, "and we have no [replacement] manufacturing capabilities in the U.S.," he says. "Germany, China and Japan are our sources." (e.g. The Grid )

Sunday, November 25, 2012

 The Latest update: More on Micron Tech

Friday 11/23/2012

                  Micron 2

        “Technology Leadership That Keeps Memory Moving Forward

Micron is known for leading the industry in researching and developing the designs and processes that keep memory moving forward. We consistently deliver market-driven solutions that provide greater capacity in smaller designs, without sacrificing quality and performance.” (e. g. Micron tech.)

               20nm NAND
 20nm NAND: 2011 Semiconductor of the Year

They'er industry-leading 20nm NAND is acknowledged for its superior design, right down to the memory cell. “UBM TechInsights named it as 2011 Semiconductor of the Year after extensive review —including examination of the device at the package and die levels and analysis of the process technology, Storage device configuration, and materials identification.” (e. g. Micron tech.)

           UBM Insight Award

 UBM Insight Award
Our prize-winning 20nm NAND technology has enabled our groundbreaking 128Gb MLC device, which sets examples for in storage silicon. “This part provides a terabit of storage in a single eight-die package, doubling the storage capacity of our existing 20nm 64Gb NAND device. Its smaller footprint frees up more board space for other critical mobile components such as screen, battery, or even more storage, and meets increasing demand for more local storage in consumer mobile devices.
Smaller and Better.”(e. g. Micron tech.)

         Process shrinks require compact, more sufisticated cells, which translates to lower performance and endurance. “With 20nm NAND, however, we developed innovative new technology that will allow our 20nm NAND to hit the same endurance and performance specifications as the last NAND generation (25nm), providing a better product and a more sustainable path for NAND scaling and development.
Continued Leadership in NAND Innovation

The introduction of 20nm NAND underscores our technology leadership in NAND development.” (e. g. Micron tech.)

 The chart below demonstrates  the innovation pace of NAND developers. Since forming the joint venture IM Flash Technologies (IMFT) in 2005, Micron and Intel have implemented process shrinks roughly every 18 months, well ahead of competitors. Because the reach these milestones sooner, they’re also better-equipped to further refine these technologies for adoption in demanding applications like SSDs and servers.

           Nand silicon leadership
         Why do NAND shrinks matter?

 “The growth in data storage, combined with new tablet and smartphone features, is demanding more from NAND Flash technology, especially for higher capacities in increasingly smaller designs. 20nm NAND reduces the footprint needed for storage, freeing up extra space for improvements like a larger power cell, a larger screen, or the addition of another chip to handle new features.

Measuring just 118mm2, our 64Gb 20nm NAND was the first 8GB MLC (two bits per cell) device that fit into a microSD™ form factor, providing high-capacity, small-form-factor storage for saving all types of media on all types of devices.”(e. g. Micron tech.)

Von Bro'